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Abbott, N.C. "Silas A. Holcomb." Nebraska History. 26:187-200. October 1945.  27:3-17. March 1946.  

Adams, Pauline and Emma S. Thornton. A Populist Assault: Sarah E. Van De Vort Emery on American Democracy, 1862-1895. 146 p. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State U Popular Press, 1982.  Emery assaulted disparities in the economic order and barriers to equality for women. 

Allen, E. A. The Life and Public Services of James Baird Weaver and James G. Field and Achievements of the People's Party. 546 p. Cincinnati: Forshee and McMakin, 1892.  Presidential campaign biography and Populist political economy.     

Alvord, Wayne. "T.L. Nugent, Texas Populist." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 57(1):65-81. July 1953.  Nugent was Populist gubernatorial candidate in 1892 & 1894.   

Anderson, David D. Ignatius Donnelly. 129 p. Boston: Twayne, 1980.  

Argersinger, Peter Hayes. Populism and Politics: William Alfred Peffer and the People's Party. 337 p. Lexington: U P of Kentucky, 1974.  Derived from his 1970 University of Wisconsin dissertation of the same title.  DAI, 33, no. 07A, (1970): 3520. 

Atkins, Leah R. "Populism in Alabama: Reuben F. Kolb and the Appeals to Minority Groups." Alabama Historical Quarterly. 32(3-4): 167-80. Fall/Winter 1970.  Jews and Catholics were ignored.  Although the African-American vote was important, there was no indication they would have been included at all levels of party activities had Populists succeeded in 1894, even though Kolb had made an open appeal for their votes.  Kolb had 19th-century white southern racial attitudes. America: History and Life, 10:2463

Bakken, Douglas A. "Luna E. Kellie and the Farmers' Alliance." Nebraska History. 50(2):185-205. Summer 1969.  Kellie was Secretary of Farmers' Alliance, Nebraska, 1895-96, and very active in Alliance politics.  

Barr, Alwyn. "B. J. Chambers and the Greenback Party Split." Mid-America 1967 49(4): 276-284.  Gives Chambers' background and stand on the major issues of the day.  His nomination for vice president on the Greenback-Labor Party ticket in 1880 was the result of a split between its eastern labor and western farmer (fusionist) wings. American History and Life, 5:2624

Bates, J. Leonard. "Politics and Ideology: Thomas J. Walsh and the Rise of Populism." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 65(2):45-56. 1974. 

Beckel, Deborah. "Roots of Reform: The Origins of Populism and Progressivism as Manifest in Relationships Among Reformers in Raleigh, North Carolina, 1850-1905." Ph.D. dissertation, Emory University, 1998.  DAI, 59, no. 08A, (1998): 3166.  Recounts the lives of John Nichols (1834-1917), James Henry Harris (1832-1891), Leonidas LaFayette Polk (1837-1892), and Fannie Exile Scudder Heck (1862-1915).  Polk was president of the Southern Farmers Alliance.  Their reform efforts were rooted in the past, cross-class, and long-lived.  Each suffered from powerful retaliation by North Carolina's conservative white male elite.  This, plus differences between reformers, prevented their building the strong coalitions necessary for lasting reform. 

Bellman, Samuel Irving. "Marjorie Kennan Rawlings: A Solitary Sojourner in the Florida Backwoods." Kansas Quarterly. 2(2):78-87. 1970.  

Besser, V. M. "Administration of Governor Waite and the Populist Party in Colorado, 1893-1895." Master's thesis, U of Colorado, 1924.  

Bicha, Karel Denis. "Jerry Simpson: Populist Without Principles." Journal of American History. 54:291-306. September 1967.  Unfavorable to Simpson.   

Billington, Monroe Lee. Thomas P. Gore: The Blind Senator from Oklahoma. Lawrence: University of Kansas P, 1967.  Gore was a Mississippi Populist before moving to Texas and then Oklahoma.  Derived from Billington's dissertation "Thomas P. Gore: Oklahoma's Blind Senator." U of Kentucky, 1955.   

_____. "T. P. Gore and Agricultural Legislation." Agricultural History 1957 31(1): 29-39.  Thomas P. Gore served as U.S. Senator from Oklahoma from 1907 to 1921 and from 1931 to 1937. As a progressive Democrat with a Populist past, Gore advocated Federal assistance for rural areas before World War I.  Gore became involved with oil interests in the 1920s, and reversed his political opposition in the 1930s. American History and Life, 0:3223

Biographical Directory of the American Congresses, 1774-1949. Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1950. 

Blake, Nelson M. William Mahone of Virginia, Soldier and Political Insurgent. 323 p. Richmond, Virginia: Garrett and Massie. 1935.  Mahone's Readjuster Movement was a forerunner of Populism. 

Blankenship, Russell. "The Political Thought of John R. Rogers." Pacific Northwest Quarterly  37(1):3-13. January 1946.  

Blumberg, Dorothy Rose. "Mary Elizabeth Lease, Populist Orator: A Profile." Kansas History. 1(1):1-15. 1978. 

Brewton, William W. The Life of Thomas E. Watson, 1856-1922. 408 p. Atlanta: the author, 1926.  

Brodhead, Michael J. "A Populist Survival: Judge Frank Doster in the 1920's." Kansas Historical Quarterly. 34(4):443-56. Winter 1968.   A Populist leader after Populism wained.  

_____. "Judge Frank Doster: Kansas Populist and Reform Idealogue." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Minnesota, 1967.  Dissertation Abstracts, 28:06A:2168.  Doster 1849-1933, the "Daniel Webster of Populism." Chief Justice Kansas State Supreme Court 1896-1902.    

_____. "Populism and the Law: Some Notes on Stephen H. Allen." Kansas Quarterly. 1(4):76-84. Fall 1969.  Legal reform efforts of a lesser-known Kansas Populist.    

_____. Persevering Populist: The Life of Frank Doster. 196 p. Reno: U of Nevada P, 1969.  Well done biography of a minor Populist.  

_____. "The Early Career of E.W. Hoch, 1870-1904." Master's thesis, U of Kansas, 1962.  Edward Wallace Hoch was power in Kansas Republican party and considered the Alliance and the Populists little better than atheistic, anarchistic socialists.  

_____ and Clanton, O. Gene. "G.C. Clemens: the 'Sociable' Socialist." Kansas Historical Quarterly 1974 40(4): 475-502.  Gaspar Christopher Clemens was a radical Kansas Populist who turned Socialist, 1885-1890s.  America: History and Life, 14A:8790

Bromberg, Alan B. "The Worst Muddle Ever Seen in N. C. Politics: The Farmers' Alliance, the Subtreasury, and Zeb Vance." North Carolina Historical Review. 56(1):19-40. 1979. 

Brooks, Arthur F. "The Administration of Andrew E. Lee, Governor of South Dakota, 1897-1901." Master's thesis, University of South Dakota, 1939. 71 pp. 

Cannon, Helen. "First Ladies of Colorado: Celia O. Crane Waite." Colorado Magazine 1969 46(2): 120-130.  Waite gave her time and energy to aiding and protecting her husband.  After his defeat for reelection, she spoke out bitterly against women who opposed the party that enfranchised them.  American History and Life, 7:899

Cantrell, Gregg. Feeding the Wolf: John B. Rayner and the Politics of Race, 1850-1918. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2001.  125 pp.  African-American orator, organizer and political strategist for Populist Party in Texas. 

_____. Kenneth and John B. Rayner and the Limits of Southern Dissent. Urbana: U of Illinois Press, 1993.  Derived "The Limits of Southern Dissent: The Lives of Kenneth and John B. Rayner."  PhD dissertation, Texas A & M University, 1988.  John B. Rayner was the leading African-American Populist in Texas, and a member of the third party's executive committee.  Kenneth was his white father, and a major Whig politician.  He became a Republican after the Civil War. 

_____. "John B. Rayner: A Study in Black Populist Leadership." Southern Studies. 24(4):432-43. 1985.  Rayner was a prominent Texas Populist. 

Carageorge, Ted. "An Evaluation of Hoke Smith and Thomas E. Watson as Georgia Reformers." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Georgia, 1963.  DAI, 24, no. 06, (1963): 2440. 

Cashin, Edward J. "Vann Woodward's 'Tom Watson': An Interpretation." Georgia Review. 28(3):519-31. 1974. 

Chambliss, Amy. "Tom Watson's R.F.D." Georgia Review. 17(1):76-84. Spring 1963.  

Chrislock, Carl H. "Sidney M. Owen: An Editor in Politics." Minnesota History. 36(4):109‑26. December 1958.  Important Minnesota Alliance Man and Populist opponent to leadership of Donnelly.  

Christie, Jean. "'An Earnest Enthusiasm for Education': Sarah Christie Stevens, Schoolwoman." Minnesota History. 48(6):245-54. 

Clark, Thomas D. "The People, William Goebel, and the Kentucky Railroads." Journal of Southern History. 5(1):34-48. February 1939.   Firebrand Democratic politician, sees agrarian discontent, steals thunder of Populists, and defeats Republicans.  

Clinton, Katherine B. "What Did you Say, Mrs. Lease?" Kansas Quarterly. 1(4):52-59. Fall 1969. 

Colbert, Thomas Burnell. "Disgruntled 'Chronic Office Seeker' or Man of Political Integrity: James Baird Weaver and the Republican Party in Iowa, 1857-1877." Annals of Iowa 1988 49(3-4): 187-207.  Weaver was a Republican leader in Iowa between 1857 and 1877.  He suffered a series of defeats by advocating Temperance.  When he departed the Republican Party to become a Greenbacker, Weaver was accused of sacrificing political conviction in order to win elections.  His disenchantment with the GOP, however, came from his belief that they had lost touch with their own ideals and interest in the people.  America: History and Life, 26:10627

____. "Political Fusion in Iowa: The Election of James B. Weaver to Congress in 1878." Arizona and the West 1978 20(1): 25-40.  Weaver's advocacy of prohibition and greenbackism alienated him from the Republican Party.  In 1878, he bolted the GOP and ran for Congress as a Greenbacker.  Fusion with Democrats was crucial to his election.  He soon gained national prominence as an agrarian leader. America: History and Life, 16A:5385

Coletta, Paolo E. "A Tempest in a Teapot?--Governor Poynter's Appointment of William V. Allen to the United States Senate." Nebraska History. 38:155-163. June 1957.   Bryan's support for Allen, Populist, 1899.    

______. "William Jennings Bryan and the Nebraska Senatorial Election of 1893." Nebraska History. 31:183-203. September 1950.  

Colwell, James L. "The Populist Image of Vernon Louis Parrington." Mississippi Valley Historical Review 1962/63 49(1): 52-66. Vernon Louis Parrington, according to most accepted scholarship, was reared in Kansas Populism, which so imbued him that he was a flaming liberal from the days of his adolescence. The author argues that on the basis of all available evidence Parrington was far from a radical in his Kansas period. On the contrary, his conversion to liberalism was far more complex and vacillating than is usually assumed.  Richard Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians (1968) agrees, although he acknowledges Parrington was a Populist while in Kansas. America: History and Life, 0:5088

Cotner, Robert Crawford. James Stephen Hogg: A Biography. 617 p. Austin, U of Texas P, 1959.  Hogg's Administration (1891-95) was influenced by Alliance ideas.  A very favorable treatment of Hogg. 

Cowden, Frances Kay. "H.S.P. Ashby: A Voice for Reform, 1886-1914." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 1996.  DAI, 57, no. 03A, (1996): 1288.  "Stump" Ashby was one of the more colorful leaders of Texas Populism.  He helped found the party in 1891.  After the demise of the People's party in 1896, Ashby continue his fight for reform allied with the progressive wing of the Democratic party in Oklahoma. 

Crawford, Paul. "Ignatius Donnelly, Agrarian Agitator." Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern U, 1950.  

Crow, Jeffrey J. "'Populism to Progressivism' in North Carolina: Governor Daniel Russell and His War on the Southern Railway Company." Historian 1975 37(4): 649-667.  Unlike Alabama Populists, North Carolina's Populists were reformers.  Although progressive Democrats failed to support Governor Russell on railroad regulation in the 1890s, they supported the issue after the turn of the century. America: History and Life, 14A:8408

_____. "Tom Watson, Populists, and Blacks Reconsidered." Journal of Negro History 1970 55(2): 99-116.  Watson maintained his devotion to white supremacy throughout his entire political career, but he did make a few token concessions to Negroes during the 1890's. He had an extremely secure and loyal following of people who were willing to tolerate his eccentricities because they were certain of his racist ideology and regional loyalty.  Many of Watson's deviations can also be traced to his hatred of all things Wilsonian. America: History and Life, 8:1477

_____. and Robert F. Durden. Maverick Republican in the Old North State: A Political Biography of Daniel L. Russell. 202 p. Southern Biography Series. Baton Rouge: LSU Press, 1977. 

Crunden, Robert M. "George D. Herron in the 1890s: A New Frame of Reference for the Study of the Progressive Era." Annals of Iowa 1973 42(2): 81-113.  Congregational minister Herron was a Populist and Progressive.  He belonged to several reform organizations, and made a name for himself by arguing that "economic competition was always opposed to moral development." He was expelled from his church for his radical socialism and from Iowa College for what was regarded as immoral behavior. America: History and Life, 13A:5362  

Curtis, Peter H. "Lorenzo D. Lewelling: A Quaker Populist." Quaker History 1972 61(2): 113-115.  Lorenzo D. Lewelling was an Iowan of Quaker parentage. He joined the Union Army as a teenager, worked with his hands, taught freedman, graduated from a Quaker college, and married by 1870. Widowed while superintendent of girls in an Iowa reform school, he remarried and moved to Wichita, Kansas, in 1887. He joined the People's Party in 1890 and won the Populist-Democratic nomination for governor because of his powerful opening address at the convention and his fusionist views. Republicans won the disputed legislative election and blocked Lewelling's program. His "Tramp Circular" against jailing unemployed vagrants won national publicity. His populism became socialist. America: History and Life, S:7731

Daniels, Dawn. "Lorenzo D. Lewelling--A Leader of the Kansas Populists." Master's thesis, Northwestern U, 1931.  Gov. of Kansas 1893-1895.  

Davis, James Harvey Cyclone, Memior, Sherman, Tx: Courier Press, 1935.  Davis, the most traveled orator of the Populist Revolt, campaigned from Oregon to North Carolina for the Populist Party. 

Davis, Rodney D. "Prudence Crandall, Spiritualism, and the Populist-Era Reform in Kansas." Kansas History. 3(4):239-54. 1980. 

De Casseres, Benjamin. "Ingalls of Kansas: John James Ingalls, 1833-1900." American Mercury. 17:339-345.  

DeFrance, Charles Q. "Some Recollections of Thomas H. Tibbles Populist Vice-Presidential Candidate in 1904." Nebraska History Magazine. October-December 1932.  

Demme, Genevieve Pyle, "Owen Pinkney Pyle: Champion of the Farmer." Master's thesis,  Rice Institute, 1958.  Pyle was an Alliance lecturer and Populist editor.  He later became president of the National Farmers' Union. 

Dethloff, Henry C. "The Longs: Revolution or Populist Retrenchment?" Louisiana History. 19(4):401-12. 1978.  Longism had its roots in Populism, but was more radical. 

Dick, Paul R. "Jerry Simpson, Populist." Master's thesis, U of Colorado, 1938.  

Digby-Junger, Richard. "The Gilded Age Journalist as Advocate: Henry Demarest Lloyd and 'Wealth Against Commonwealth.'" Ph.D. dissertation (Journalism), University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1989.  DAI, 51, no. 01A, (1989).  Lloyd not only was a reformer and political philosopher, but also an activist journalist who championed various reforms as his perceptions changed.  His attempt to fuse urban labor and socialistic elements with Populism was unsuccessful.  

Diggs, Annie L. The Story of Jerry Simpson. 274 pp. Wichita: Jane Simpson, 1908.  Diggs was active in the Kansas Populist movement. 

Doan, Edward N. The La Follettes and the Wisconsin Idea. 311 p. New York: Rinehart, 1947.  

Doermann, Humphrey. "All My Immense Labor for Nothing...." American Heritage. 12(4):60-64, 104-107. June 1961.  Traces career and radical ideas of Ignatius Donnelly.  

Doolen, Richard M. "'Brick' Pomeroy and the Greenback Clubs." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 1972 65(4): 434-450.   Journalist Pomeroy was a principal figure in the Greenback Party club movement. a journalist.  before interparty rivalries intervened, nearly 6,000 Greenback Clubs had been chartered.  Pomeroy resisted fusion politics even after soft-money men had assumed leadership in the Democratic Party.  

_____. "Pastor in Politics: The Congressional Career of the Reverend Gilbert de la Matyr." Indiana Magazine of History 1972 68(2): 103-124.  Methodist minister Gilbert De La Matyr began preaching in favor of financial and currency reform he catapulted in the 1870s.  His references to the moneyed classes as oppressors of the masses incurred the wrath of conservatives.  In 1878, the Indianapolis Sun became his defender and began carrying his sermons on financial reform.  His fellow ministers forced him to retire from the pulpit in 1878, when he ran for Congress on the Greenback Party ticket.  Once in Washington, he did propose several pieces of legislation but none passed.  He was defeated for reelection in 1880 when the Democrats withdrew from fusion.  De La Matyr probably brought Greenbackism a certain degree of respectability.  America: History and Life, 14A:822

Eggert, Gerald G. "Coxey's March on Washington, 1894." American History Illustrated 1977 12(6): 20-31.  Coxey was greenbacker, populist, and founder of the Good Roads Association.  He wanted the federal government to issue noninterest-bearing bonds (Greenbacks) to hire the unemployed to construct roads, schools, courthouses, and other public facilities. To publicize his plan, he organized a march of the unemployed on Washington, D.C. from his home in Massillon, Ohio. The marchers left Ohio in March 1894 and arrived in Washington on May Day, 1894. America: History and Life, 16A:1088

Ellis, Elmer. Henry Moore Teller: Defender of the West. 409 p. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton, 1941.  Populists urge Teller, a Silver Republican, to back Bryan.  

Emmonds, David M. "Moreton Frewen and the Populist Revolt." Annals of Wyoming 1963 35(2): 155-173.  English speculator and cattleman Moreton Frewen at first Frewen opposed the settlers in the Johnson County War.  Economic reverses and an awareness of social problems caused him to adopt many Populist ideas.  He later backed free silver and bimetallism, attacked Wall Street bankers, demanded that the government aid the citizens by controlling corporate business, and denounced the Jews. America: History and Life, 1:2948

Fingerhut, Eugene R. "Tom Watson, Blacks, and Southern Reform." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1976 60(4): 324-343. Traces the career of the Georgia Populist leader Thomas E. Watson from about 1880 to the early 1900's, focusing on his attitudes toward Negroes. Early in his career he supported limited rights for blacks, especially the opportunity to vote, but later on he reversed his position and became a supporter of Negro disfranchisement because that position was more useful for the reforms he was then advocating. America: History and Life, 15A:8890

Fischer, Roger A. "Rustic Rasputin: William A. Peffer in Color Cartoon Art, 1891-1899." Kansas History 1988-89 11(4): 222-239.  Kansas Populist and US Senator William Alfred Peffer became the political cartoonists' symbol of the People's Party. Through the creative talents of major Northeastern urban caricaturists of the day, Peffer probably achieved more prominence as a caricature than he did as a statesman. Peffer's early prominence and uniquely agrarian appearance made him an easy target for cartoon caricature.  Seldom has an American political figure been so systematically misrepresented.  Reprinted in Fischer's Them Damned Pictures: Explorations in American Political Cartoon Art. North Haven, CN: Archon Books, 1996. America: History and Life, 28:5592

Fleming, Elvis E. "'Sockless' Jerry Simpson: The New Mexico Years, 1902-1905." New Mexico Historical Review 69 (January 1994): 49-70.  Simpson moved to New Mexico for health reasons.  He became active in the political and economic live of his new home. America: History and Life, 33:6317

Flory, Raymond. "The Political Career of Chester I. Long." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Kansas, 1955.  Long, Kansas Republican, beat Jerry Simpson in his bid to be re‑elected to the House in 1894.  Dissertation contains good material on Simpson as a political foe, and shows well deserved his monicker of "Shoeless Socrates of Kansas."  

Fraker, Elmer L. "The Election of J.Y. Callahan." Chronicles of Oklahoma 33(3):350-59. 1955.  Unfortunately, riddled with factual errors.  Populist Callahan was the Oklahoma Territory's only non-Republican delegate to the U.S. Congress.   

Franks, Keith. "Jerry Simpson: A Kansas Populist." Master's thesis, Northwestern U, 1940.  

Franzoni, Janet Brenner. "Troubled Tirader: A Psychobiographical Study of Tom Watson." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1973 57(4): 493-510.  About Watson's tirades on blacks, Catholics and Jews. America: History and Life, 11A:2943

Fuller, Henry C. A Texas Sheriff. 80 p. Nacogdoches: The Author, 1931. Reprint, San Augustine, Texas: S. Malone, 1983.  Ghost-written autobiography of A.J. Spradley, the Populist Sheriff of Nacogdoches County, Texas. 

Gaboury, William Joseph. "Boodle and Blunder: The Election of Henry Heitfield to the U.S. Senate." Idaho Yesterdays 13(3):6-17. 1969.  Democratic-Populist fusion sends Democrat to U.S. Senate. 

Garretson, O.A. "The Lewelling Family." Iowa Journal of History and Politics. 37:548-63. October 1929.   L.D. Lewelling was successful Populist candidate for governor of Kansas, 1892.  

Gilman, Rhonda R. "Eva McDonald Valesh: Minnesota Populist." in Stuhler, Barbara and Kreuter, Gretchen, eds. Women of Minnesota: Selected Biographical Essays. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society P, 1977.  Eva McDonald Valesh was a leading figure in Minnesota's labor and agrarian political movements.   She supported the Knights of Labor, the Farmers' Alliance, and the People's Party as a journalist and lecturer.  She was elected State Lecturer of the Minnesota Alliance, was a national organizer for the People's Party, and worked for William Jennings Bryan in 1896.  That same year, she moved to New York City where she worked as a journalist and became involved with the Women's Trade Union League.  

Graff, Leo W., Jr. "Fred T. DuBois and the Silver Issue, 1896." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 1962 53(4): 138-144.  Description of the 1896 election campaign in Idaho, with free coinage of silver as the principal issue.  

Grantham, Dewey W., Jr. Hoke Smith and the Politics of the New South. 396 p. Baton Rouge, LSU Press. 1958.  Some treatment of Southern Populism.   

Grantham, Dewey W., Jr. "Hoke Smith: Progressive Governor of Georgia, 1907-1909." Journal of Southern History. 15(4):423-440. November 1949.   Governor of Georgia, "A Populist in Democratic regalia."   

_____. "Hoke Smith: Representative of the New South." Ph.D. dissertation, U of North Carolina, 1949.   

_____. "Texas Congressional Leaders and the New Freedom, 1913-1917." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 53(1):35-48. July 1949.  Former Texas Populists become New Freedom progressives.  

Gray, Sarah Lois. "Thomas E. Watson: Leader of Georgia Populism." Master's thesis, Emory U, 1933. 

Griffiths, David B. "Far-Western Populist Thought: A Comparative Study of John R. Rogers and Davis H. Waite." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 60(4):183-192. October 1969.  Political thought of Populist governors of Washington and Colorado.  Includes stands on the single tax, the natural right to free land, imperialism, and the farmer-labor alliance. America: History and Life, 7:2881

Grimes, Richard Brandt. "Samuel Crocker: Political Agitator." 92 pp. M.A. thesis, University of Central Oklahoma, 1996.  Crocker was a Greenbacker (Iowa), Union Laborite (Kansas), and early leader of the People's Party in Oklahoma. 

Gustaitis, Joseph. "Coxey's Army." American History Illustrated 1994 29(1): 38-45.  Outlines the story behind Coxey's Army and Jacob Coxey's reform ideas.  Included are creation of a national road-building program, the issuing of non-interest-bearing bonds to finance it, and federal aid for the unemployed). America: History and Life, 34:1592

Guth, Delloyd J. "Omer Madison Kem: The People's Congressman" M.A. thesis, Creighton
            University, 1962.

Harmer, Marie U. "The Life of Charles H. Van Wyck." M.A. thesis, U of Nebraska, 1929. Van Wyck was prominent in Populist circles.  

Harris, David A. "The Political Career of Milford W. Howard, Populist Congressman from Alabama." Master's thesis, Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn U), 1957.  

Haynes, Fred E. James Baird Weaver. 494 p. Iowa City: The State Historical Society of Iowa, 1919.  Reprint: New York: Arno, 1975. 

Haywood, C. Robert. "Populist Humor: The Fame of Their Own Effigy." Kansas History 1993 16(1): 34-41.  Political humor served the big three of Kansas Populism better than it should have. Reformers Mary Elizabeth Lease, William A. Peffer, and Jerry Simpson provided ample opportunity for lampooning by political cartoonists, but Republicans and Democrats failed in their attempts to exploit these opportunities. Simpson even cashed in on his image as a farm-smart buffoon.  America: History and Life, 31:12258

Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. "The Public Career of Richard F. Pettigrew of South Dakota: 1848-1926." South Dakota Historical Collections. 34:143-311. 1968.   U.S. Senator 1889-1901, includes Populist and Farmer-Labor activity.  

Hicks, John D. "The Political Career of Ignatius Donnelly." Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 8(1-2):80-132. June-September 1921.  Donnelly in Minnesota and national politics, 1863-1900.  Donnelly in Minnesota and national politics, 1863-1900.  

Hill, Luther Lister. "Reuben Kolb and the Populist Revolt in Alabama." Senior thesis, Princeton U, 1957.  

Holmes, William F. "Ellen Dortch and the Farmers' Alliance." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1985 69(2): 149-172.  Ellen Dortch (1863-1962) served as editor of the Carnesville Tribune in Franklin County, Georgia, during 1890-92. She strongly opposed the Southern Farmers' Alliance, the Georgia Alliance, and the People's Party, particularly attacking Thomas Jefferson Stonecypher, the local Alliance lecturer. Although she sympathized with the farmers' problems she was opposed to their political involvement in a third party. 

Hunt, James L."The Making of a Populist: Marion Butler, 1863-1895." North Carolina Historical Review 1985 62(1): 53-77.  In Sampson County, Butler's early life was comfortable and religious as he worked on the family farm. He presented orations at the University of North Carolina (1881-85) on racist and Southern themes.  After graduation, Butler taught school, purchased a local newspaper, The Caucasian, and soon became a leader in the newly formed Southern Alliance. America: History and Life, 23A:6796

_____. Marion Butler and American Populism. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.  A revision of "Marion Butler and the Populist Ideal, 1863-1938." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1990.  DAI, 51, no. 04A, (1990).  Butler served as national chairman of the Populist Party (1896-1904).  Most of the text is a detailed factual account of Butler's life.  Membership in the Farmers Alliance caused Butler to develop a comprehensive reform ideology, which included a demand for government control of natural monopolies.  Butler directed the Populist victory over North Carolina Democrats in 1894.  After Populism, Butler was attracted to the reformism of Theodore Roosevelt.  Contrary to the assessments of Lawrence Goodwyn and C. Vann Woodward, Butler fully understood and supported Populism's 1892 radical Omaha platform, and he advocated coalition politics in order to sustain it. 

Hurt, R. Douglas. "John R. Rogers: The Union Labor Party, Georgism and Agrarian Reform." Journal of the West 1977 16(1): 10-15.  As a Greenbacker and Union Laborite, Rogers attacked both major parties for failing to deal with contemporary problems. While in Kansas, he published the Newton Kansas Commoner. He moved to Washington in 1890, where he became governor in 1897. America: History and Life, 16A:2509

Ingle, H. Larry. "A Southern Democrat at Large: William Hodge Kitchin and the Populist Party." North Carolina Historical Review 1968 45(2): 178-194.  Ex-Confederate William Hodge Kitchin attacked the established white ruling class in North Carolina, using the rhetoric of democracy in the service of white supremacy.  But, as a Populist, he attempted to preserve conservative principles.  He was on the right wing of the party. America: History and Life, 6:2651

James, Edward T. "American Labor and Political Action, 1865-1896: The Knights of Labor and Its Predecessors." Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, 1954.  ADD, W1954, (1954): 0233. 

James, Edward T. "T.V. Powderly, A Political Profile." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 1975 99(4): 443-459.  Originally a supporter of the Greenback-Labor party, Powderly became national head of the Knights of Labor in 1879. Its membership peaked around 1886, but shortly thereafter the Knights became more small-town and political-reform oriented.  Powderly became a Republicans in 1894.  President McKinley appointed him Commissioner-General of Immigration in 1897. 

Johnson, Gerald W. The Lunatic Fringe. 249 p. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1957.  Popular biographies of Ignatius Donnelly, "Sockless" Jerry Simpson, Mary Elizabeth Lease, and Tom Watson.  Readable.  Also, Coin Harvey and John Peter Altgeld.  

Kennedy, Roger G. "Ignatius Donnelly and the Politics of Discontent: An Inquiry into the Career of a Populist." American West 1969 6(2): 10-14, 43, 46-48.  A son of anticlerical Irish immigrants, Ignatius Donnelly moved to Minnesota in 1856.  The Panic of 1857 broke his land-speculation bubble and drove him into farming and politics.  He became Lieutenant Governor, Governor, and a three-term Congressman.  He gradually he assumed the role of the champion of the downtrodden farmer.  He authored the preable to the Populist's Omaha Platform. He was a principled man in a remarkably unprincipled age, contending for justice against the hosts of error and indifference. America: History and Life, 6:1981

Klotsche, Johannes. "The Political Career of Samuel Maxwell." Nebraska Law Bulletin. 6:439‑54. May 1928.  Maxwell was a Republican judge who switched to the Populist Party.  

La Follette, Robert M.  Robert M. La Follette's Autobiography: A Personal Narrative of Political Experiences. 807 p. Madison: Robert M. La Follette, 1913.   "The Conditions that produced La Follette were in large part the conditions that produced Populism." Hicks, Populist Revolt.  Not Populist, but American agrarianism.

Lause, Mark A. The Civil War's Last Campaign: James B. Weaver, the Greenback-Labor Party, and the Politics of Race and Section. Lanham, MD; NY; and Oxford: University Press of America, 2001. Gen. James Baird Weaver made his case for the meaning of their victory in Civil War during the presidential election of 1880. The campaign briefly united the efforts of thousands of farmers, workers, women, and African-Americans protesting their betrayal by the Republicans who had ended Reconstruction. Insurgents included moderate liberals disgusted by the corruption of the two-party system, militant socialists, advocates of environmental awareness, vegetarians and spritualists. Generationally, the 1880 GLP campaign included abolitionists, socialists, land reformers, suffragists and others along with many later active as Populists, Progressives, Nationalists, Social Democrats, anarchists, etc. whose work continued well into the twentieth century.

Lilley, William, III. "The Early Career of Francis G. Newlands, 1848-1897." Ph.D. dissertation, Yale University, 1965.  Includes Silver and Populist Parties. 

Lindsay, Charles. "Populism and Politics: The Start of George W. Norris' Political Career." Nebraska History. 42:75-94. June 1961.  

Lloyd, Caro A. Henry Demarest Lloyd, 1847-1903. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1912.  

Lowitt, Richard. "Populism and Politics: The Start of George W. Norris' Political Career." Nebraska History. 42:75-94. June 1961. 

Macoll, John D. "Ezra a. Olleman: The Forgotten Man of Greenbackism, 1873-1876." Indiana Magazine of History 1969 65(3): 173-196.  A prosperous Indiana merchant, Olleman became one of the prime movers in the Greenback movement.  As associate editor of the Indiana Farmer, Olleman helped found the Greenback Party in Indiana, but in 1876 he fell out with the State's party leaders.  His lasting influence is a result of his editorial work for the Greenback movement.  

MacFerran, William, Jr. "Col. Hughes and the Legislative War." Shawnee County Historical Society, Bulletin. 17:25‑29. December 1952.   On the refusal of James W. F. Hughes, commanding the National Guard of Kansas, to obey the order of L.D. Lewelling, Populist Governor of Kansas, to expel Republican members of the House of Representatives in 1893. 

MacLean, Nancy. "The Leo Frank Case Reconsidered: Gender and Sexual Politics in the Making of Reactionary Populism." Journal of American History. 78:917-948. December 1991. 

Macune, Charles W., Jr. "The Wellsprings of a Populist: Dr. C. W. Macune Before 1886." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 1986 90(2): 139-158.  Describes the family background and early life of the author's great grandfather, Charles William Macune, president of the Southern Farmers' Alliance.  Born in Wisconsin, Macune became editor of the Burnet Bulletin in 1874, where he displayed his rapidly acquired Southern Democrat point of view.  He studied and later practiced medicine, before moving to Dallas and becoming involved in the Populist movement. America: History and Life, 25A:2194

Manley, Robert N. "A Note on Government and Agriculture: A Nineteenth Century Nebraska View." Nebraska History. 45(3):237-52. September 1964.  Populist demands (particularly extension of federal authority in the interests of agriculture, and the regulation and even ownership of railroads) were not radical minority demands, but demands that had earlier been voiced by Nebraska GOP. America: History and Life, 1:2920

Manning, Joseph Columbus. From Five to Twenty-Five. 89 pp. New York: T.A. Hebbons, 1929.  Early years of a noted Alabama Populist and Editor of Alabama Reformer.  

Masters, Edgar Lee. "John Peter Altgeld." American Mercury. 4(14):161-174. February 1925.  Occasional reference to Populists.  

Maxwell, Robert S. La Follette and the Rise of the Progressives in Wisconsin. 271 p.  Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1956.  

McClintock, Thomas C. "Seth Lewelling, William S. U'Ren and the Birth of the Oregon Progressive Movement." Oregon Historical Quarterly 1967 68(3): 197-220.  An account of the early development and gradual decline of one phase of progressive political activities under the leadership of Lewelling and U'Ren in Oregon, 1892-98. Financial problems, personalities, and adoption of progressive planks by major political parties eroded potential success. America: History and Life, 5:969

McDaniel, George William. "New Era Agrarian Radicalism: Smith W. Brookhart and the Populist Critique." Annals of Iowa 1988 49(3-4): 208-220.  Smith W. Brookhart (1869-1944) began his political career in the mid-1890's as an Iowa Republican.  He came to advocate government ownership of railroads.  He eventually shared the Populist belief that big business and the monetary policies of the federal government threatened to deny freedom and opportunity to farmers and small business owners. America: History and Life, 26:8586

_____. "Smith Wildman Brockhart: Agrarian Radical in New Era America." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Iowa, 1985.  Brookhart was a Republican in the 1890s, but his later political philosophy had its roots in Populism.  DAI 1986 47(3):1035-A. 

Moore, John Hammond. "James Gavin Field: Virginia's Populist Spokesman [1892]." Virginia Cavalcade. 9(4):35-41. Spring 1960.   

_____. "The Life of James Gavin Field, Virginia Populist." Master's Thesis, University of Virginia, 1953. 

Morris, John R. "Davis Hanson Waite: The Ideology of a Western Populist." 337 pp. Ph.D. dissertation, U of Colorado, 1965.  Dissertation Abstracts, 27:03:733-A.  Populist governor of Colorado. Omaha platform of 1892 was Waite's political bible.  

_____. "The Women and Governor Waite." Colorado Magazine. Winter 1967 44:11-19. Woman's suffrage (1893) was Davis Waite's greatest legislative accomplishment.  But, the next year Waite strangely turned against the issue.  He believed most women voted against him in 1894.  Only if women paid taxes and possessed enough intelligence to protest unfair laws did he think them qualified to vote. America: History and Life, 4:2770

Morris, C. Gwin. "James Harvey Cyclone Davis [1853-1940]: Texas Populist." Journal of Student Association of Texas. 49-54. June 1971.  

Nelsen, Jane Taylor. ed. A Prairie Populist: The Memoirs of Luna Kellie Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, 1992. 

Nelson, Richard. "The Cultural Contradictions of Populism: Tom Watson's Tragic Vision of Power, Politics, and History." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1988 72(1): 1-29.  Watson's views did not change, as some historians have suggested, but were responses to situations caused by conflict between his republican ideology and his ambition. America: History and Life, 26:10271

Newcombe, Alfred W. "Alson J. Streeter: An Agrarian Liberal." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 2 parts. 38:414-45. December 1945. 39:68-95. March 1946.   Alliance President 1886, supported Cincinnati Conv., 1981.  

Noblin, Stuart. Leonidas La Fayette Polk, Agrarian Crusader. 325 pp. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1949.   

_____. "Leonidas Lafayette Polk and the North Carolina Department of Agriculture." North Carolina Historical Review. 20:103-21. April 1942. Part Ii, 20:197-218. July 1943.  

Nolan, Terence Hunt. "William Henry Skaggs and the Reform Challenge of 1894." Alabama Historical Quarterly. Summer 1971 33(2): 116-134.  Skaggs was Alabama Populist campaign chairman.  Skaggs spoke against convict labor in mines, in favor of lien laws favoring workers, honest weights and measures, and elimination of the Sayre Election Law. America: History and Life, S:7033

Nugent, Catherine, ed. Life Work of Thomas L. Nugent. 398 p. Stephenville, Texas, Catherine Nugent. 1896.  An 1896 campaign document.  Good information on Nugent whose moral outlook and personal qualities made him the leader of Texas Populism. 

Nydahl, Theodore L. "The Diary of Ignatius Donnelly, 1859-1884." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Minnesota, 1942.  

Olson, James C. J. Sterling Morton: Pioneer, Statesman, Founder of Arbor Day. 430 p., illus. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1942.   Biography of a Nebraska Bourbon Democrat. 

Parsons, E. Dudley. "Ignatius Donnelly, Novelist Scholar." Farmer. 47:16-17. March 16, 1929.  

Paulson, Ross E. Radicalism and Reform: The Vrooman Family and American Social Thought, 1837-1937. 299 p. Lexington: U of Kentucky P, 1968.   Greenbackism, Populism, and reform in Kansas, c. 1870s-1930s.   

Piehler, Harold Richard. "Henry Vincent: Populist and Radical-Reform Journalist." Kansas History 2(1): 14-25. 1979.  A summary of Piehler's Ph.D. dissertation, "Henry Vincent: A Case Study in Political Deviancy." Ph.D. dissertation (American Studies), University of Kansas, 1971.  Vincent and his brother, Leo, operated the American Nonconformist, a Union Labor and Populist newspaper.  The Vincents were important in organizing the Populist victory in Cowley County in 1889, and in the statewide victory in 1890.  They moved the Nonconformist to Indianapolis in 1891.  America: History and Life, 18A:3003

Pollack, Norman. "Ignatius Donnelly on Human Rights: A Study of Two Novels." Mid-America 1965 47(2): 99-112.  Donnelly's novels, Doctor Huguet (1891) and The Golden Bottle (1892) were affirmations of man irregardless of race, religion, or ethnicity. America: History and Life, 2:2377

Portrait and Biographical Record of Southeastern Kansas, Containing Biographical Sketches of Prominent and Representative Citizens of the Counties, Together with Biographies and Portraits of All the Presidents of the United States and Governors of the State of Kansas. Chicago: 1894.  Sketches of Populist leaders of Kansas, e.g. Percy Daniels, Populist Lt. Governor, 1893-94.  

Pruitt, Paul, Jr. "A Changing of the Guard: Joseph C. Manning and Populist Strategy in the Fall of 1894." Alabama Historical Quarterly 1978 40(1-2): 20-36.  Details the attempt of Joseph C. Manning, 1892-96, to unite Populists against Kolb's Jeffersonian Democratic machine. America: History and Life, 18A:2744

_____. "Joseph C. Manning, Alabama Populist: A Rebel Against the Solid South." Ph.D. dissertation, College of -William and Mary, 1980.  DAI, 41, no. 08A, (1980): 3686.  Manning was hampered by the more conservative leadership of Reuben Kolb and by voting frauds.  He called for "A Free Ballot and a Fair Count."  In 1894, Manning invited the Alabama GOP to join Populists in requesting a congressional investigation of state politics.  He joined the GOP in 1896, when the disruption of Populism became certain.  Later in life he wrote wrote civil rights pamphlets and worked for the NAACP.  

Ranchino, James L. "The Work and Thought of a Jeffersonian in the Populist Movement: James Harvey 'Cyclone' Davis." Master's thesis, Texas Christian University, 1964. 

Ridge, Martin. "Ignatius Donnelly and the Granger Movement in Minnesota." Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 42(2):693-709. March 1956.   

_____. "Ignatius Donnelly and the Greenback Movement." Mid-America 1957 39(3): 156-168.  Greenbackism in Minnesota, and probably elsewhere, was not radical.  It simply served as a vehicle of social criticism. America: History and Life, 0:4972

_____. "Ignatius Donnelly, Minnesota Congressman, 1863-1869." Minnesota History.  36:173-83. March 1959.   

_____. Ignatius Donnelly: The Portrait of a Politician. 427 p. Chicago, U of Chicago P, 1962. Derived from "Ignatius Donnelly: The Making of a Tribune." Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern U, 1951.  

Robison, Daniel Merritt. Bob Taylor and the Agrarian Revolt in Tennessee. 238 p. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1935.  A study of the relationship between the election of Robert L. Taylor, as governor of Tennessee in 1886, and the "agrarian revolt which swept the country during the eighties and nineties . . . culminating in the Populist movement and Bryan campaign of 1896."  

Roeder, Richard B. "Crossing the Gender Line: Ella L. Knowles, Montana's First Woman Lawyer." Montana 1982 32(3): 64-75. Ella L. Knowles became Montana's first woman lawyer in 1889.  She established a practice in Helena, and ran unsuccessfully as the Populist candidate for attorney general in 1892.  Her Republican opponent, Henry J. Haskell afterward appointed her assistant attorney general.  They married, but later divorced.  

Rogers, William Warren. "Reuben F. Kolb: Agricultural Leader of the New South." Agricultural History. 32(2):109-119. April 1958.  Pioneer plant and crop developer; unsuccesful Alliance-supported candidate for Governor of Alabama, 1892, 1894. America: History and Life, 0:4697  

Rosengarten, Theodore. "'I Stand Where My Boyhood Put Me': Reconsidering Woodward's Tom Watson." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1988 72(4): 684-697.  Discusses C. Vann Woodward, Tom Watson: Agrarian Rebel (1938).  The book appeared when interest in Southern history was increasing.  But, the book's theme dissented from the current historiography on the New South. America: History and Life, 27:6506

Ross, Chapin. "A Historical and Critical Study of the Public Address of James Harvey 'Cyclone' Davis (1853-1941) of Texas." Ph.D dissertation (Speech), University of Southern California, 1969. 

Ross, John Raymond. "Andrew Jackson Spradley: A Texas Sheriff." Master's thesis, Stephen F. Austin State University, 1973.  As the Populist sheriff of Nacogdoches Co., Spradley protected blacks.  Also see Fuller, A Texas Sheriff

Rysavy, Don. D. W. "Hines and the Farmers' Railroad: A Case Study in Populist Business Enterprise, 1894-1898." North Dakota Quarterly 1979 47(4): 20-34.  Populists supported state construction of a railroad as an alternative to the exorbitant rates of the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroads. America: History and Life, 18A:3055 

Sandefur, Ray Harold. "Analysis of Selected Public Speeches of John James Ingalls." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Iowa, 1950.  Contends that Ingalls voted the interests of Kansas and the Populists.  Populists fealt otherwise and replaced him with farm editor, William A. Peffer in 1891. 

Saunders, Robert M. "The Transformation of Tom Watson, 1894-1895." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1970 54(3): 339-356.  Populist Thomas E. Watson's moved to the political right in 1895.  He became increasingly conservative, attacking Roman Catholics, Jews, labor, radicals, Socialists, Democrats, and, more particularly, men like Jacob Coxey and Henry George. He also became a thorough racist, abandoning his former position of moderation on the Negro question.  America: History and Life, 8:2083

Schlup, Leonard. "Adlai E. Stevenson and the 1892 Campaign in Alabama." Alabama Review 1976 29(1): 3-15.  Vice-presidential nominee Adlai E. Stevenson campaigned in five southern states, including Alabama.  He portrayed the Federal Elections Bill (1890) as a threat to white southern society, and indicative of Republican actions should they recapture the White House.  His efforts successfully neutralized the Populist challenge.  America: History and Life, 14A:5357

_____. "Adlai E. Stevenson and the 1892 Campaign in North Carolina: A Bourbon Response to Southern Populism." Southern Studies 1991 2(2): 131-149.  1892 Democratic vice presidential candidate Adlai E. Stevenson stumped North Carolina in 1892 assuring listeners that Democrats would defeat the Federal Elections Bill and continue economic benefits to the South.  Stevenson's North Carolina family background gave him credibility.  He saved North Carolina for the Democrats. America: History and Life, 30:10034

_____. "Adlai E. Stevenson and the 1892 Campaign in Virginia." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1978 86(3): 345-354.  Democratic Vice-Presidential nominee Adlai E. Stevenson campaigned in Virginia during the 1892 campaign. His efforts headed off a serious threat by the Populist Party and helped carry the state for the Democratic Party. America: History and Life, 16A:7837

_____. "Charles A. Towne and the Vice-Presidential Question of 1900." North Dakota History 1977 44(1): 14-20.  Populist Towne was William Jennings Bryan's choice for running mate on the Democratic ticket in 1900. Following the Populists' nomination the conservative eastern wing of the Democratic Party successfully pushed for Adlai E. Stevenson.  America: History and Life, 15A:4393

_____. "Gilded Age Republican: Thomas H. Cater of Montana and the Presidential Campaign of 1892." Midwest review 1993 15: 51-70.  Thomas H. Carter rose rapid to prominence in Republican Party councils and became chairman of the Republican national committee in 1892.  He was instrumental in getting the increasingly unpopular President Benjamin Harrison renominated.  Harrison's defeat illustrated carter's naiveté regarding the Populist movement.  America: History and Life, 34:5693

_____. "Nevada's Doctrinaire Senator: John P. Jones and the Politics of Silver in the Gilded Age." Nevada historical society quarterly 1993 36(4): 246-262.  During the 1890's, Jones bolted from the Republican Party, joined the Populists, supported the presidential candidacy of William Jennings Bryan in 1896.  Afterward, he returned to the Republican Party, although he continued to advocate the free coinage of silver. America: History and Life, 32:8767

_____. "The Political Letters of the First Adlai E. Stevenson to Grover Cleveland in 1892." Manuscripts 1992 44(2): 127-135. Examines the role of Cleveland's vice presidential candidate in 1892, Adlai E. Stevenson. He was instrumental in delivering Illinois and Indiana for the Democrats and counteracting the efforts of the Populist Party. America: History and Life, 30:12274  

Schmier, Louis E. "'No Jew Can Murder': Memories of Tom Watson and the Lichtenstein Murder Case of 1901." Georgia Historical Quarterly 1986 70(3): 433-455.  In November, 1900, Sigmund Lichtenstein, a Jewish store owner in Adrian, Georgia, accidentally killed John Welch, a drunken man who had attacked him.  Lichtenstein was tried and acquitted at least partly because he was defended by noted lawyer Tom Watson. America: History and Life, 25A:4520

Schwantes, Carlos A.  Coxey's Army: An American Odyssey. Lincoln: U of Nebaska P, 1985. 

Scott, Myron C. "A Congressman and His Constituents: Jerry Simpson and the Big Seventh.  M.A. thesis, Fort Hays Kansas State College, 1959.  

Scott, Roy V. "John Patterson Stelle: Agrarian Crusader from Southern Illinois." Illinois State Hisitorical Society Journal. 55(3):229-49. Autumn 1962.   Lesser known, but important, militant Populist leader.  

Shafner, Jerrell H. and Rogers, William Warren. "Joseph C. Manning: Militant Agrarian, Enduring Populist." Alabama Historical Quarterly Spring-Summer 1967 29(1 and 2): 5-37.  Manning differed from many populist leaders in that he retained his views throughout his life.  Manning advocated free elections and majority rule.  He saw the Constitution of 1901 as a Democratic Party effort to prevent needed reform.  America: History and Life, 7:819

Sheldon, Addison E. "Nebraskans I Have Known: John Holbrook Powers." Nebraska History. 19331-39. October-November 1938.   Populist candidate for governor, 1890.   

_____. "Nebraskans I Have Known: William Vincent Allen." Nebraska History. 19:191-206. July-September 1938.   Populist, U.S. Senator, 1893-1901.  

Shepard, John C. "The State Senatorial and Gubernatorial Career of John W. Leedy, Kansas Populist, 1892-1899." M.A. thesis, U of Kansas, 1969.  

Simkins, Francis Butler. Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolinian. 577 p., illus. Southern Biography Series edited by Fred C. Cole and Wendell H. Stephenson. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1944.   Reprinted Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith, 1964.  

Simms, L. Moody, Jr. "A Note on Sidney Lanier's Attitude Towards the Negro and Toward Populism." Georgia historical Quarterly. 52(3):305-307. 1968. 

Simons, George B. "David Ward Wood." In History of the Republican Party and Biographies of Its Supporters. 289 p. David Ward Wood, ed. Chicago: Lincoln Engraving and Publishing Company, 1895.   Wood was editor for Milton George's Western Rural, and was active in Farmers' Alliance affairs.  

Smith, Ralph A. "A.J. Rose, Agrarian Crusader of Texas." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Texas, 1938.  

Smith, Robert W. "'The People's Party Paper' and Georgia's Tom Watson." Journalism Quarterly 1965 42(1): 110-111.  The weekly newspaper started in 1891 was profitable from November, 1892 to July, 1894.  The circulation never exceeded twenty thousand. America: History and Life, 2:1466

Socolofsky, Homer E. "Jacob Coxey, Ohio's Fairly Respectable Populist." Kansas Quarterly. 1(4):63-69. Fall 1969.  

Sorg, Eric V. "Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief: The Life of Frank Powell, Medicine Man." Wyoming History Journal 1995 67(1): 32-47.  Following his 1873 graduation from Louisville Medical College, Powell became an army contract surgeon. Powell, known by the nickname White Beaver, became associated with forty Western dime novels. He and "Buffalo Bill" Cody shared a patent medicine business. During the 1880's and 1890's, Powell served four terms as mayor of La Crosse, first as a Populist and then as a Republican. America: History and Life, 34:7720

Sparkman, John J. "The Kolb-Oates Campaign of 1894."  Master's thesis, U of Alabama, 1936.  Gen. Wm. Oates, Democrat, v. Commissioner Kolb, Populist, in  race for Governor. Kolb lost this disputed election.  

Stermock, Michael C. "The Later Career of Tom Watson, 1906-1922." Master's thesis, University of North Dakota, 1984. 88 pp. 

Stiller, Richard. Queen of the Populists: The Story of Mary Elizabeth Lease. 245 pp. New York: Crowell, 1970.   Juvenile.  

Summersell, Charles G. "A Life of Reuben F. Kolb." M.A. thesis, U of Alabama, 1930.  Kolb, Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Alliance leader-hero, sought Democratic nomination for Governor in 1890.  

Taggart, Harold F. "Thomas Vincent Cator: Populist Leader." California Historical Society. 30:311-318. December 1948. 31:47-55. March 1949.  

Taylor, Betty L. "Mary Elizabeth Lease, Kansas Populist." M.A. thesis, U of Wichita, 1951. 58 pp. 

Taylor, Jon Edward. "Thomas Lewis Nugent: Portrait of a Populist Leader." Master's thesis, Baylor University, 1992. 147 pp. 

Thompson, Margaret H. "The Writings of John Rankin Rogers." M.A. thesis, U of Washington, 1949.   Rogers was Populist governor of Washington.  

Thorson, Playford V. "Ole Ellingson: A North Dakota Radical Populist." North Dakota Quarterly 1981 49(4): 39-51. Biography of a self-described "radical Populist" and prohibitionist who objected to corporate control of railroads, the telegraph, and national banks. America: History and Life, 20A:3016

Vinson, J. Chal. "Hoke Smith and the 'Battle of the Standards' in Georgia, 1895-1896." Georgia Historical Quarterly. 36(3):201-19. September 1952.  Election of 1896; Smith's advocacy of Gold Standard; resignation from Cleveland's cabinet as Secretary of Interior.  Fights to keep southern Democratic party from Populist takeover.  

Wade, John Donald. "Jefferson: New Style." American Mercury. 28(71):293-301. November 1929.   Subject is Tom Watson. Glossy, eulogistic, popular, at times, almost a Psalm. Interesting, nevertheless.  

Walker, Samuel. "George Howard Gibson: Christian Socialist Among the Populists." Nebraska History. 55(4):553-72. 1974.  Gibson served as editor of the Populist official organ in Nebraska, the Alliance-Independent (which he renamed the Wealth Makers) from October 1893 to January 1896. He proved to be too extreme for most Nebraska Populists, who wished to stress free-silver and fusion. He relinquished his editorship of the paper to lead a group of Nebraskans to found the Christian Commonwealth Colony in Georgia. 

Walters, Donald E. "The Feud Between California Populist T. V. Cator and Democrats James Maguire and James Barry." Pacific Historical Review. 27(3):281-98. August 1958. Populist party relationships with other liberal and reform groups.  

Warren, Sidney. "Ignatius Donnelly and the Populists." Current History 1955 28(166): 336-342.  Populists were political realists, rather than radicals or revolutionaries.  They understood that repudiation of laissez-faire principles was essential to agrarian economic interests. America: History and Life, 0:3160

Watson, Thomas E. "Why I Am Still a Populist." Review of Reviews. 38:303-306. September 1908.  Maintains that through Populism the spirit of protest can be  kept alive." Hicks, Populist Revolt.  Election of 1908. Watson was Populist Presidential candidate.  

Wilkens, Kenneth Gerhard. "A Rhetorical Study of the Speechmaking of General James B. Weaver." Ph.D. dissertation (Speech-Theater), Northwestern University, 1954.  DAI, 14, no. 10, (1954): 1848, 

Williams, Burton John. "John James Ingalls: A Personal Portrait of a Public Figure." Ph.D. dissertation, U of Kansas, 1965. Dissertation Abstracts, 26:06:2983.    Ingalls, "Mr. Republican" in Kansas politics, was a staunch opponent of Populists.    

_____. "The Kansas Alliance vs. 'Mr. Republican': The Case for the Accused." Kansas Quarterly. 1(4):40-48. Fall 1969.   John J. Ingalls, U.S. Senator, 1873-1891 (Mr. Republican), and Populist opposition to political privilege.  

Williams, Marshall L. "The Political Career of Cyclone Davis." Master's thesis, East Texas State Teacher's College, 1937. 

Wish, Harvey. "John Peter Altgeld and the Election of 1896." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 30(3):353-84. October 1937.  Contends Altgeld "engineered the popular movement of protest,...from third party channels to the newly liberalized Democratic party." Excellent for Populist activities in support of Altgeld.  

Witham, James W. Fifty Years on the Firing Line. 284 p. Chicago: Published by the author, 1924.   Remembrances of individuals active in Alliance affairs, and has sketches of Milton George and others. 

Woodward, C. Vann. Tom Watson: Agrarian rebel. 518 p. New York: Macmillan, 1938. Reprint by Rinehart. 1955.   Derived from Ph.D. dissertation, "The Political and Literary Career of Thomas E. Watson." U of North Carolina, 1937. ADD, W1937, (1937): 0076. 

Wright, Luella Margaret. "Leonard Brown, Poet and Populist." Iowa Journal of History and Politics. 46:227‑65. July 1948.